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FörVadDetÄrVärt/Langholm was the principalmoor in the Joint Raptor Study (JRS) in the 1990s, which quantified the impact that raptors could have on red grouse and showed that predation by hen harrier populations may reach levels sufficient to render red grouse shooting unviable. Therefore, when shooting became unviable in 1997, the gamekeepers were laid off1 and habitat and predator management virtually ceased until the keepering restarted as part of the new LMDP in spring 2008. During that period of little or no keepering, crow and fox numbers increased, breeding hen harrier numbers dropped back to pre-JRS levels, grouse numbers further declined, breeding wader populations declined to very low numbers, and the status of both the SSSI2 and SPA3 was found to be unfavourable. The loss of grouse shooting also had a significant negative impact on the local economy. To many observers this represented a ‘lose-lose’ situation in terms of nature conservation, culture, employment and economic activity.